摘要：Background: Differentiation between Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosis is difficult but crucial for medical decisions. This study aims to develop an effective framework to distinguish these two diseases through an explainable machine learning (ML) model. Methods: After feature selection, a total of nine variables are extracted, including intestinal surgery, abdominal, bloody stool, PPD, knot, ESAT-6, CFP-10, intestinal dilatation and comb sign. Besides, we compared the predictive performance of the ML methods with traditional statistical methods. This work also provides insights into the ML model’s outcome through the SHAP method for the first time. Results: A cohort consisting of 200 patients’ data (CD = 160, ITB = 40) is used in training and validating models. Results illustrate that the XGBoost algorithm outperforms other classifiers in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, precision and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), yielding values of 0.891, 0.813, 0.969, 0.867 and 0.801 respectively. More importantly, the prediction outcomes of XGBoost can be effectively explained through the SHAP method. Conclusions: The proposed framework proves that the effectiveness of distinguishing CD from ITB through interpretable machine learning, which can obtain a global explanation but also an explanation for individual patients.
刊名：Scientific Reports (JCR Q1)，2022